151 rum alcohol guide and Plantation Original Dark Rum Angostura Single Barrel Rum Bacardi 151 Bacardi rum Bacardi rum drinks black strap rum Booze 101 Cachaca cachaca cocktails cachaca recipes Caribbean alcohol Cruzan Single Barrel Cuban rum Cuban rum laws daiquiri recipe dark rum Demon rum Difford's Guide rum Don Q Signature Release 2007 Single Barrel Rum Don the Beachcomber Donn Beach Donn Beach rum Ernest Raymond Beaumont-Gantt flaming rum drinks flaming rum recipes flaming rum shots flavored rum Food Editorial rum future of rum Gosling's Black Seal grog gunpowder proof rum Henry Morgan history of grog hot to drink rum how cachaca made how make alcohol how store alcohol how to cook with rum how to store rum Jack Sparrow rum Kill Devil Kill Devil rum Latest learn about rum learn rum light rum mai tai recipe mojito recipe molasses alcohol molasses rum Mount Gay Black Barrel Rum Myer's Original Dark Rum overproof rum pina colada recipe rhum agricole Rhum Rhapsodies rum rum 101 rum ABV rum aficionado rum alcohol rum bartending rum basics rum cocktails rum dessert drinks rum explanation rum graphics rum graphs rum guide rum history rum in the future rum mixed drink recipes rum mixed drinks rum pictures rum questions rum recipes rum short history rum storage rum wiki rum wikipedia rum yeast rumbillion Saccharum Saccharum rum silver rum Smuggler's Notch Single Barrel Rum spiced rum sugarcane sugarcane alcohol sugarcane rum the ultimate rum guide Trade triangle rum what is Cachaca what is grog Zacapa 23 zombie cocktail zombie cocktails

The Ultimate Rum Guide: Everything You Need to Know!

The Ultimate Rum Guide: Everything You Need to Know!


Okay, aspiring bartenders and residential beverage makers, it's time to study everyone's favorite sugar cane taste: rum! Yes, we are coming to the tropics sporting (mol) asses on this sweet spirit liked by pirates, Caribbean vacationers, and virtually everyone else with a Tiki drink habit. While we shouldn't be fast with customers of stereotypical rum drinks, "because this delicious spirit is not just freakin", unbelievable in Piña colada, daiquiris, mojitos and corn, it’s also greater than respectable as a sipper alone, very similar to high quality whiskey.

But like some other spirit, you possibly can't just go blind with rum drinks; you want to get all the details straight, particularly when you’re anticipated to know every part concerning the origin of rum, its production course of and grades now that you’re in your method to turning into an professional bartender. So take a few minutes, sit down with a pleasant glass of Rhum Agricole (study what it’s) and be ready for some critical studying. This Ultimate Rum Guide will inform you all the things from the history of rum to the production of rum to totally different rum courses, how we drink rum like an actual hobbyist – or Captain Jack Sparrow for those who've had an extended week.


To begin with: You already know that rum is the spirit of any bar – residence or professional – however what is it? The brief reply all the time offered by the useful Wikipedia: “Rum is a spirit drink made from sugar cane by-products such as molasses… by fermentation and distillation. [That resultant] The distillate, a clear liquid, is then generally aged in oak barrels. "

What does this mean? Basically, to make rum, you have to plant a bunch of sugary foods – a tall grass species – then cut it down completely, crush it and extract the sugars from the pulp (this is called cane juice – or molasses, a byproduct of the sugar cane refining process). of alcohol to produce an alcoholic liquid and then distill the liquid to distill its alcoholic strength by volume (ABV) from the order of 10% ABV to 40% or even 84% Of course, the rum production process involves a lot more nuances and steps, but we get to the following.

As for the short origin of rum – Do you know what you need to spit if some smart people want to test your rum credits – you want to know that most people follow its official establishment by the day Christopher Columbus planted the famous (sad) sugar cane in the Dominican Republic n?) during their journey to the New World in 1492. As far as the real discovery that sugar cane could be turned into an alcoholic beverage occurred later, in the 18th century, Caribbean plantation serfs discovered that molasses, a by-product of the sugar refining industry mentioned above, could be turned into alcohol.

yes, this is molasses … Photo: Wikimedia / Tractorboy60

And as long as we talk about the origin of rum, its etymology will probably come from a shortened version. t he word rumbullion (or rumbustion), an English word that appeared in English at the same time as rum became the name … rum. As for the definition of rumbillion, it was a slang for the terms “wholesale” or “noise”. Seems like a superb rum origin phrase, right?

As far as rum markets are involved, things look brighter than the white sand seashore in Puerto Rico. Rum gross sales reached an all-time excessive of almost $ three billion in the USA alone in 2018, with no signs of stagnation. And whereas rum continues to be predominantly produced within the Caribbean and Latin America, it’s also produced in different nations all over the world, resembling Austria, Canada, Fiji, Great Britain, america, the Philippines, South Africa and tons elsewhere. 19659003] So to sum up the fundamentals of rum: It is a distilled alcoholic beverage constructed from fermented cane juice or molasses (often molasses equivalent to about 97% of the rum produced on the planet at this time), courting back to the late 16th century in the Caribbean when can be utilized as an alcoholic drink.

Now let's transfer on to the historical past of rum!


Now that you already know all about rum, let's dive into its history. But this might be a comparatively shallow dive. Books could possibly be written concerning the history of rum – they usually undoubtedly are – but for all the bartender's purposes, you just need to know the large strokes to feel you could maintain your personal if a patron or (stinking) good friend tries to throw the trivia into your path.

Now, with out additional ado, here's a really temporary take a look at the journey of rum to go from blurry grass found in Asia to scrumptious components to the daiquir you’re keen on to sip by the pool.


Without sugar, there can be no rum, so let's pay our respects and speak briefly concerning the history of this high quality herb. Sugar Screw or Saccharum officinarum is native to tropical elements of Southeast Asia, although totally different species are possible to originate in several elements of the world, Saccharum Barberi is from India and Saccharum officinarum from New Guinea. In accordance to Wikipedia, sugar cane is home-grown and its sugar cane extraction in all probability first occurred in tropical Southeast Asia around 8,000 B.C.

. Photograph: Wikimedia / Rmanyiza

Then, about 8,800 years later (ninth century AD), Muslim and Arab merchants took sugar cane from Southeast Asia and distributed it to the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa and Andalusia. Within the 10th century AD. Sugar cane was grown in the Mesopotamia area – which is principally elements of present-day Iraq and the encompassing nations. It was additionally one of many first crops to be moved by the Spaniards to America from the Canary Islands off the coasts of Western Sahara and Morocco and from the Portuguese fields of Madeira.


Now that we now have had a primary history of sugarcane, let's transfer on to the great things (read: more significant stuff) and speak about Christopher Columbus bringing the sugarcane to a new world.

In 1492 – You know, when Columbus sailed the ocean blue and every little thing else – he brought a cane to the Caribbean and planted fields of goods when he observed that this new tropical setting he found was good for it. However Columbus was not in a position to maintain all the sugars for himself. In accordance to Stay Science, “Spanish colonizers harvested seeds from Columbus fields in the Dominican Republic and planted them in vibrant Caribbean settlements. By the mid-16th century, the Portuguese had imported some to Brazil, and shortly thereafter, sweet sugar cane was on its way to colonies in Great Britain, the Netherlands and France, such as Barbados and Haiti. "

But all that sugar food is harvested for its sugar. was hard work. Hard Work by Slaves

19th Century Painting of Columbus's Landing in West India. Photo: Wikimedia / Capitol Architect


Now we need to briefly consider the trade triangle, because it contained slaves and slaves were a critical part of finding rum.

The trade triangle was basically a trading system established between the European colonies of the Caribbean and the continents of Europe and Africa. The system worked by using slave labor in Caribbean settlements to collect sugar from sugar cane fields, delivering sugar to Europe where it could be traded for money and goods, and then using that money and these goods to buy more slaves from Africa to Caribbean, where they are used for planting. In addition to being a terrible crime against humanity, this trade triangle inadvertently led to the discovery of rum, because the slaves realized that one of the by-products of rum, molasses, could be fermented and converted into low-alcohol alcohol.

trade triangle diagram. Photo: Wikimedia / Supportstorm

As Food Editorial notes, “The first distillation of rum took place in the Caribbean sugar cane plantation in the 18th century. Planting serfs first discovered that molasses, a by-product of sugar purification, had become alcohol. Subsequently, the distillation of these alcoholic by-products concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first true rums. “Sometime after it was discovered that molasses could be turned into booze, it was distilled, and so, the high ABV rum was first made. (By the way, rum was going by several names at this point, including "Kill the Devil.")

So in summary: The basic alcohol used for rum was discovered in the 18th century, when the Caribbean planters stated. that molasses could be fermented (can its sugars be converted to alcohol with yeast). Sometime later, it was distilled, and Bang, you had modern rum.

History of Rum in the United States

After discovering and developing rum in the Caribbean, it eventually migrated to the colonies of North America. . There, the first rum distillery was established in 1664 on Staten Island, followed by a second distillery in Boston, MA three years later. Soon after, rum became Colonial New England's largest and most profitable industry. In fact, rum made on Rhode Island was so popular and coveted that it even became associated with gold as an acceptable form of currency in Europe. (Rum is also traded between immigrants and indigenous peoples, so really everyone loves rum quite a lot.)

Rum continued to gain popularity in the colonial states even after the US Revolution – George Washington even dins the barrel of Barbados rum when he took office in 1789. Wikipedia also notes that rum [also] has played an important role in the political system; candidates tried to influence the election result with abundance of rum. People took part in the sanctions to see which candidate looked more generous. The candidate was expected to drink with the people in order to prove that he was independent and truly republican. "

A 20th Century Description of the Haunting and Chastising of Uncle Sam (US Government). "Demon Rum" as well as other mind-altering substances. Photo: Wikimedia / Oliver Herford

but the place of rum in the ramp light did not last forever. Finally, British restrictions on sugar imports from the Caribbean and the rise of American whiskey led to a sharp decline in the popularity of rum in North America.

The popularity eventually increased. rum, and came with the rise of the "Tiki culture" in the 1930s. If you're unfamiliar with it, the Tiki culture – influenced by embroidery and mythology and Polynesian art – began in the United States with the opening of a Polynesian-themed bar and restaurant, Don the Beachcomber, in Hollywood. The founder, Ernest Raymond Beaumont-Gantt of Texas, had sailed through the South Pacific and decided to return the cultural elements of his experience to the states.

Menu at Don The Beachcomber. Photo: Wikimedia / Digital Collection of Historical Society of California

Beaumont-Gantt's cross between Polynesian culture contained tropical rum drinks – â & # x20AC; & # x153; know like serving in Tiki glasses – and Bang, rum had returned. As Wikipedia states, "The founder of Don The Beach [Beaumont-Gantt’s newly adopted name, what a pimp…]the founder of Don The Beachcomber, is also credited with having created the tropical beverage genre one-way." In addition, "Beach was the first restaurant to mix flavored syrup and fresh fruit juices. rummilla. “The beach called these drinks' Rhum Rhapsodies' and they made his restaurant in Hollywood the starting point for the elite class of the 1940s and '60s. His Tiki trend and its rum drink components copied tons of other restaurant owners, which helped increase the popularity of rum in America. (As a side note, Beach is given the creation of iconic rum cocktails, including Zombie and Scorpion.)

Zombie cocktail. Photo: Tipsy Bartender


Although the popularity of rum may have fallen again after the Tiki Cultural Movement in the early 20th century – mid-now, in the 21st century, it is back and bigger than ever. As American Magazine states, “[I] In the 21st century, rum is being reconstructed. Rum was respected. The Rum Revolution. Or as the connoisseurs like to call it the renaissance of rum. They are not talking about the rum you drink with coke or a sticky umbrella cocktail; they proclaim the rum that you drink after dinner. Captain Morgan has moved to Courvoisier and a new Cognac is coming from the Caribbean. "

Paul McGee, director of beverages at the Chicago Land and Sea Dept., told the Chicago Tribune in 2016 that" People have said that rum is the next big spirit in the last few years, and [he thinks] has been attracted because of its use. in cocktails … "The same article quotes alcohol experts as saying that rum has become increasingly popular as a result. relatively short aging compared to whiskey; lack of blue agave in Mexico (a key factor in the production of tequila) and its incredible range of flavors.

Rummy sales statistics also seem to support these hypotheses. As mentioned, rum sales reached an all-time high in 2018 in the United States as a product worth more than $ 3 billion was moved. The Guardian also notes that UK rum sales exceeded one billion pounds in 2017. The same Guardian article states that the Tiki culture has risen in the UK, which can only be good for rum, as evidenced by what happened to Donn in the United States all his Polynesian thanks.


When you think of rum or at least the history of rum, you are undoubtedly thinking of pirates. Or at least Captain Jack Sparrow. So here is a brief summary of how and why rum and offshore yo-ho-hoers intertwined. bu

The origin of rum, which became the drink of the pirates' choice, dates back to 1655, when the British Royal Navy conquered Jamaica, which gave the British access to a large rum market. Until then, British sailors were supplying brandy, which was a French commodity, so the foreign brandy was understandably replaced by the now self-made (if you can call the products of another country self-made) rum. 19659049] 17th Century Portrait of Henry Morgan, a Welsh Enthusiast, followed by the Captain Morgan rum badge. Photo: Wikimedia / Alexandre Exquemelin

So rum became a go-to drink for British sailors, which was great at first because booze is booze, You know? But then the British Royal Navy made one of the biggest alcohol-related crimes imaginable: They began scrapping to make the portions longer, but also to prevent seafarers from being excessively littered. all the time. This incredibly baptized rum was called grog. (Lime or other citrus fluid was sometimes added to the grog.)

But the sailors didn't have any of these dehydrated steers *! T. So many of them broke and became either private sailors by government agreement (Imagine an old-school version of Blackwater mercenaries) or just outright pirates. But even after leaving the British Royal Navy to become sailors or pirates, they continued to use rum as a single staple drink – it was also used to disinfect fresh water on ships, which becomes unhealthy when kept on board for long periods. And while the pirates liked to drink almost any dog ​​they could get their hands on – that is, anything they could steal from merchant ships – they usually ended up crumpling in rum and water because that was what was being moved in the Caribbean. 19659003]

An 18th-century description of pirates who carried rum on land to obtain slaves. Photo: Wikimedia

The story of pirates and rum is, of course, much more, but in widespread strokes, it is basically a trade. So there was nothing epic or mythical about the connection between pirates and rum; it was just a matter of convenience and coincidence. But damn, if being an 18th century pirate doesn't sound fun, right ?!


OK, so you say you've decided to make rum from absolute scratch, what do you have to do to make it happen? You must complete the following steps, which will take you from growing sugar cane to bottling rum. Just heads-up, if you really want to make your own rum, it's a very difficult process. Everything from sugarcane cutting to machete to barrel aging takes a lot of time and effort, which is why we should be so appreciative of anyone who makes rum. Try seriously trying to cheer on some people in the Caribbean just before you start your next rum campaign with friends; after reviewing the next process, you will find that rum makers deserve it.


To make rum, you must first plant and sugarcane. As previously mentioned, the sugar screw is, according to Wikipedia, a group of "several groups of tall perennial true grass species of the Saccharum genus … from tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and Melanesia … [that is used] sugar production." knowledge is not very important, you may want to know that sugar cane grows best in tropical or temperate climates – hence its spread in the Caribbean, Southeast Asia and South America – and grows best in "areas where water is abundant for more than six to seven months a year, either by natural rainfall or by irrigation. "

sugar cane field. market economy system, is of course its sucrose; K. sugar. But while you can definitely make rum from fermented cane juice, remember that most rum in the world is actually made from molasses, a by-product of that sugar extraction process. So from this first step, since it involves the production of rum, you have to grind a bunch of sugar cane – either men waving machetes or mechanical harvesters – and then take them to the mill where you go to the second step.


Now that you have cut all the cane stems, it is time to transport them to the mills so that they can be crushed and crushed so that the cane juice is extracted. . When you have a cane juice, you can do some things with it.

1. You can make rum from straight cane juice. This is how rum is made in the French way in western France (Martinique and Guadalupe). So all you have to do about rum this way is to take the cane juice, go for it and age it (or not) and bang it, you are good to go. But as mentioned, most rum is not prepared in this way. Which leads us to the next steps that can happen at this point.

2. You can also take the cane barrier, boil it to reduce the water content and concentrate it in the sugar syrup. This "wet sugar syrup", which is about 30% sugar, can be used as a sweetener alone or fermented and distilled to rum.

3. Finally – and this is by far the most used by rum producers – you can take the by-product of molasses, fermentation and distillation of the cane juice extraction process to make rum.

how exactly do you get molasses from a cane juice that boils down to the bottom (check pun) and takes the dark brown liquid remaining after all the sugar crystals have been extracted.

It looks like fresh cane juice. Photo: Wikimedia / Rupika08


OK, now that our molasses are – and we just focus on molasses in the final part of the guide, because that's what rum is made of – it's time to ferment it. What does fermentation mean? In essence, this means taking your molasses, adding water and yeast (monocellular fungus), and allowing the yeast to be patted with the remaining molasses sugars to produce ethanol, i.e. the alcohol in the drink. Yeast produces not only ethanol but also aldehydes, esters and acids, which are chemical compounds that affect the taste of the final rum product.

With respect to the particular characteristics of molasses fermentation, the process really depends on the distillery. . For example, there is "natural fermentation", which includes yeasts that already have sugar cane leaves. Many distilleries also utilize commercially grown yeast, which clumps molasses in different ways, producing different chemical compounds that produce different flavors. (As the rum ministry states, most commercial rum distilleries use both sugar cane yeast and commercially purchased cultured yeast.) You look at the fermentation schedule anywhere from 24 hours to two. weeks.

rum fermentation tanks (not particularly elegant). Photo: Wikimedia / Stefan Ivanovich

When you go through molasses (allowed yeast to rest in molasses sugars and produce ethanol and these aromatic chemical compounds), you have a so-called. Washing, "which is a liquid with an ABV of anywhere from 5% to 10%.

Now that you are washing – a liquid that can be drunk and make you really tipsy" because it contains alcohol – it's time to do some distillation until ABV.


The process of distillation is usually quite simple: you have to wash your nest, place it on the stomach of still pieces – a basically a very large copper base with a long neck – so that the ethanol and water in the wash can be separated. This is done by igniting a fire under the stomach of the still portion, which sends ethanol to compete with the long necks of the still bodies, where it is collected from the openings at one end of the long neck. The reason that mostly ethanol vapor accelerates the neck of still bodies and most of the water stays in the north is because of the different boiling points of the two liquids – the lower point of ethanol is 173.1 degrees Fahrenheit and the boiling point of water is 212 degrees Fahrenheit. This distillation process is then generally repeated to further raise ABV.

In principle, there is infinite complexity and variation with respect to the particular characteristics of distillation. For making types, you can use either pot photos (a.k.a. alembic photos) or columns (a.k.a. coffey stills or continuous stills), although many distilleries combine both. Each of these still discs has a very wide design and materials used, which all affect the taste of the rum end product.

Pots for rum distillation. Photo: Flickr / anax44

In principle, these still drives affect the taste of rum by removing certain flavor compounds (those aldehydes, esters, and acids previously mentioned). Depending on the distillery, the rum that passes through the photos also changes the taste when combined with dunder – the liquid that remains in the boiler after a batch of rum is distilled – or left on the column plates for a longer period of time, resulting in lighter, cleaner rum.

There are many other aspects to consider when talking about rum distillation (for example, what parts of rum vapor distillers are used; e.g., the first part, middle portion or end portion of ethanol vapors), but what has been described are broad strokes. If you want to go deeper into the details of rum distillation, this Difford guide is a great job of covering all the different ways of rum distillation. Although a general rule of thumb, just know that rum distillation varies greatly, and it all depends on the specific methods of the distillery.

Barrel aging, carbon filtration and blending of rum

Now that you have distilled rum – which has an ABV anywhere from 40% to 95% – you are ready to either bottle and sell it, barrel aging, blending and / or charcoal filtration . So let's take a quick look at our alternative:

Barrel aging: When it comes to barrel aging rum, you use what you virtually consider to be some type of oak barrel. According to Difford's Guide, the most common barrels are American Oak Barrels, which are used fresh or have been used in the past to aging bourbon (American whiskey). These Oak barrels are always charred and tend to be more aromatic than other types of barrels because of their carbonization.

Regarding the actual absorption of rum into the flavors from the barrel where it is aged, it becomes tannins, vanillin, and other flavor compounds in the barrel wood. The carbon inside the barrels also caramels the natural sugars on the wood surface, which also absorbs rum. (If you are wondering how rum absorbs wood aroma compounds, it happens because over time alcohol in the rum, a solvent, is absorbed into and out of the porous wood – this results in the taste of the decomposed scrap and wood compounds in the wood.)


barrels of rum. Photo: Wikimedia / MAClarke21

In addition to absorbing barrel flavors, rum also comes in a variety of golden / brown barrels – yes, along with aroma-acting compounds, these barrels also contain compounds that act color.

How long rum is aged depends on the type of rum being made. Unlike whiskey, there are usually no hard and fast rules about how long a particular rum needs to be aged – but there are exceptions; for example, Cuban rum law states that "Cuba requires aging of all pure alcoholic beverages for at least two years in white oak barrels of 180-200 liters …". Some rums have aged for only a few months. while some (very rare) rums are up to 50 years old.

The following section examines in more detail how different types of rums age. Also a side note: In the Caribbean barrels, aged rums evaporate much faster than in the rest of the world due to the warmer tropical climate. This evaporation of alcohol is called the "proportion of angels" and causes a loss of about 6% alcohol per barrel per year.

Charcoal Filtration: Another aspect of changing the taste of a particular rum involves carbon filtration. This basically means that a certain rum is poured (once or several times) through a filter. Like everything else in the alcohol world (and especially rum in the world), there are tons of specifics that change depending on the distillery. So while Bacardi can use a blend of tropical trees and coconut shells to filter, the materials used in another distillery can be completely different.

The reason that distilleries filter out their carbon is usually to make them "smoother." in other words, charcoal filtration helps to remove harsh-flavored molecular compounds that negatively affect taste. It should also be noted that carbon filtration also affects color – so for example, you could have very dark rum that has been in the barrel for three years, filter it with charcoal and come out with very clear rum at one end Mixing:

that needs to be addressed before talking about bottle bottling and selling, and that is mixing. And, as the term implies, it's about mixing different rums.

Mixing rum is intended to improve the taste of rum in general by combining younger rums with older rums. For example, you might get a mix between three-year rum and 12-year-old rum. Voit myös saada rompeja sekoitettuna muihin lisäaineisiin, kuten hedelmämehut, karsittu viini, boisse, sokeri ja mauste. Saat tietysti myös sekoituksia ruukkujen kanssa tislattujen rommien välillä pylväslevyjen kanssa.

Toisin kuin viski, rommin sekoitusten maailmaa ei ole hyvin säännelty, ja usein ei ole lakeja, jotka sääntelevät rommin pullojen sallimista. olla merkitty. Joten esimerkiksi viskin kanssa, sinun on lain mukaan ilmoitettava seoksessa nuorin viski. Näin ei ole rommin kohdalla – vaikka pullossa oleva nuorin rommi on usein etiketissä ilmoitettu ikä, toisinaan joskus keskiarvo ilmoitetaan. Difford’s Guide notes that some rum age statements “are simply meaningless.” Useless to say, this type of thing would by no means fly on the planet of whiskey.


OK, now that you’ve your rum that’s been distilled, aged, and probably charcoal filtered and/or blended, it’s time to bottle! And as you’ll be able to think about, this step simply includes… bottling. Significantly, all you need to do at this point is take the rum out of their barrels and pour it into bottles, and bang, you’re good to go! Although you’ll also need to add labels — something we’ll get into within the subsequent part.

One bottling section of Bacardi’s rum distillery. Image: Flickr / Joe Schlabotnik 


Alright alright alright! Now that we’ve the basics of rum down, in addition to the history of rum and how rum is made, it’s time to deal with what might be thought-about probably the most troublesome facet of constructing out your rum information: Categorizing rum. Yes, you’d assume that arising with categories and sticking numerous kinds of rum in every one can be a simple endeavor, nevertheless it turns out that classifying rums is more durable than an unripened sugarcane stalk. Why? As a result of there’s so little uniformity in definition and classification amongst disparate nations.

As Wikipedia notes, requirements for ABV, growing older, and naming requirements are utterly totally different relying on nation. For instance, Colombia requires rum made inside its borders to include a minimum of 50% alcohol by quantity. Chile and Venezuela, then again, solely require a minimum of 40% alcohol by volume. Similar goes for getting old: Mexico requires rum be aged a minimal of eight months, whereas the Dominican Republic, Panama, and Venezuela require a minimum of two years. And similar for naming requirements: The U.S. formally defines its rum classes as rum, rum liqueur, and flavored rum, whereas Grenada and Barbados use the terms white, overproof and matured.

The world’s largest rum assortment. Image: Wikimedia / osseous 

So, with all of these caveats in thoughts, listed here are some common rum categories that you simply’ll almost definitely see pop up many times — if in case you have all of those committed to reminiscence, you’ll undoubtedly give you the chance to handle any questions which will come your means from bar patrons or (yeah, snarky) pals.


Darkish rum: When it comes to dark rum, there’s — unsurprisingly — no hard-and-fast definition. As Robs Rum Guide notes, “The term dark rum is essentially meaningless.” OK, properly, it’s not meaningless, however it definitely is nebulous. Typically, in the event you’re talking a few dark rum, you’re talking a few rum that has been barrel aged for some time (in all probability a couple of months to a number of years) inside a charred oak barrel. Taste-wise, you’ll be able to anticipate dark rums to present a larger range of tastes versus mild rums thanks to all that barrel ageing. As a aspect notice, dark rum can also be the most typical sort of rum used as a cooking rum.

A few of the greatest darkish rums embrace: Zacapa 23, Gosling’s Black Seal, Myer’s Unique Darkish Rum, and Plantation Unique Darkish Rum.

Flavored rum: As its identify implies, flavored rum is rum that has been infused with one or more flavors by way of components added after a given rum has been fermented and distilled. These flavors are often fruity in nature, like banana, orange, mango, pineapple, coconut, and so on. Flavored rums are usually 40% ABV or much less (again, depending on country…), and are sometimes used in equally tasting tropical rum drinks. Though premium flavored rums can most undoubtedly be sipped on by themselves on ice or neat.

A number of the greatest flavored rums embrace: Malibu Coconut Rum, Blue Chair Bay Vanilla Rum, Bacardi Limon Rum, and Jan Stephenson Pineapple Rum.

Spiced rum: Spiced rum, like flavored rum, is rum that has been infused with spice flavoring. A number of the spice flavors that can be added embrace cinnamon, rosemary, absinthe, pepper, cloves, or cardamom. Most spiced rums are based mostly on gold or dark rums, they usually can be good for sure recipes that decision for rum.

A bottle of Captain Morgan spiced rum. Image: Wikimedia / דג בלי מלח

A few of the greatest spiced rums embrace: Chairman’s Reserve, Sailor Jerry, Sugar Island Spiced Rum, Bayou Spiced Rum, Cruzan Spiced Rum, and Malibu Spiced Rum.

Gold (or amber or pale or…) rum: Gold rums are usually thought-about to be a halfway rum between mild rum and darkish rum when it comes to growing older and coloration, and again achieve their flavor profile principally from the barrels during which they’re aged. Like darkish rums, gold rums can be used in tropical drink recipes, drunk by themselves on the rocks or neat, or used in meals recipes that decision for rum.

A few of the greatest gold rums embrace: Havana Membership Añejo 7 Años, Angostura 1919, Appleton Estate Rare Mix 12 YO, and Amrut Two Indies Rum.

Mild (or white or silver or…) rum: Mild rums, despite their lack of colour, are virtually all the time aged for a minimum of a number of months to a yr in both picket or chrome steel casks. Those aged in wooden casks have their shade eliminated by way of charcoal filtering, hence their being completely clear. When it comes to flavor profile, mild rums usually don’t have any of the flavors acquired by barrel ageing or flavor infusion, and are most frequently used for combined drinks. Mild rums are also usually bottled at at the least 40% ABV. So for those who buy yourself a bottle of sunshine rum, you’ll undoubtedly want to get another drink elements to combine it with, ’cause it’s by far the harshest to drink on its own.

Some of Bacardi’s white rum. Picture: Flickr / Michael Au 

A number of the greatest mild rums embrace: Mount Gay Silver Rum, Banks 5 Island Rum, Brugal Especial Additional Dry, Caña Brava, and El Dorado three Yr.

Overproof rum: Overproof rums are rums which have a much greater proof (ABV) than regular rums. So while most rums you’ll see on shelves could have an ABV of around 40% to 50%, overproof rums could have an ABV of 75% (150 proof) and even 80% (160 proof). These overproof rums achieve their extraordinary ABV degree by not being diluted after being taken out of their casks.

A few of the greatest overproof rums embrace: Lemon Hart 151, Hamilton 151, Wray and Nephew White Overproof Rum, and Damoiseau 110 Pure Cane Rum.

Sadly, for those who’re within the U.S., the very best ABV overproof rum you’ll give you the option to get your palms on is 75% due to the U.S. having laws towards importing liquors with an ABV larger than that. But still, 75% is admittedly dang robust — for those who’re on the lookout for something with a better ABV than that, we now have to ask: What the heck are you getting your self into? Though, to be truthful, rums with a better ABV than 75% are sometimes consumed in the Caribbean, where, as Robs Rum Guide notes, “locals prefer a stronger drink.” Actually, the preferred rum bought in Jamaica is Jamaica’s Wray And Nephew White Overproof, which has an ABV of 63%. And oh, by the best way, should you’re wanting to set a drink on hearth, overproof rum is perfect.

Premium rum: When you’re actually wanting to attempt the perfect of one of the best, you’ll want to go together with a premium rum. You understand how a bunch of snobs will sip on — and critique — fancy whiskeys? Yeah, you can do the identical thing with premium rums.

Premium rums are these which were aged for years and years in casks — perhaps for a dozen years, or, in some very rare and costly instances, 50 years — and are preferrred when sipped on on their very own neat or on the rocks. Significantly, pouring a premium 12-year-old rum into a combined drink can be both a criminal offense and a tragedy.

Normally, you’ll be able to anticipate premium rums to have darker, richer colours, in addition to heavy barrel-influenced flavors. These premium rums also tend to be the smoothest. Oh, and in addition by far the costliest (Duh.)

A number of the greatest premium rums embrace: Mount Homosexual Additional Previous Rum, Ron Zacapa XO, El Dorado 12 Yr Aged, Appleton Estate 21 Yr Previous Rum, and Navazos Palazzi Cask Power.

Black rum: Black rum is a class of rum you gained’t hear about lots, however it’s on the market, so we’ll cowl it here. Usually, black rums are the darkest, richest, most heavy bodied rums, and are additionally the rums that retain probably the most rich molasses and caramel flavoring produced by changing molasses into rum. Typically occasions black rums are colored with burnt caramel to deliver that distinctive darkish coloration.

You will not be too conversant in black rum as a result of it’s typically not drunk, but slightly used within the baking and candy-making industries to help a given recipe achieve bold, candy, and spicy flavors.

A bottle of Malibu Black rum. Image: Tipsy Bartender 

A few of the greatest black rums embrace: Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum, Kraken Black Spiced Rum, and Malibu Black Rum.

Navy-strength rum: When you see a bottle of Navy-strength rum pop up in a bar or liquor retailer shelf, you principally want to know one factor: It’s roughly 57% ABV. Critically, that’s about the only defining characteristic of navy-strength rum. Apart from that, Navy-strength rum is all about its association with the British Royal Navy. As outlined in the history of rum part, the British Royal Navy was provided with rum, and navy-strength rum goals to duplicate that sort of rum as intently as attainable — though it’s not reduce with water and/or lime juice.

As for why it’s roughly 57%, that’s because when 18th century sailors used to check the power of the rum they got, they might mix it with gunpowder, and lightweight the ensuing paste on hearth to see if it might explode. If it did explode, then the rum had a suitable quantity of alcohol. If the gunpowder didn’t explode, then the sailors would turn their noses up in distaste. Later, in the 19th century, thanks to more advanced alcohol-measurement tools, it was found that the ABV required to make this gunpowder explosion occur is 57%. Therefore navy-strength rum having an ABV of round 57%.

Pusser’s “Gundpowder Proof” rum. Image: Pusser’s Rum LTD

A number of the greatest navy-strength rums embrace: Pusser’s Rum Black Label: Gunpowder Proof, Lost Spirits Navy Fashion Cask Power Rum, and Rumbullion! Navy Power.

Aguardiente: Aguardiente a kind of rum that isn’t aged and is usually infused with anise flavoring — anise is a plant that has a very sweet style and aromatic properties, and tastes some what comparable to black licorice. The identify Aguardiente interprets to “burning water” or “fire water.”

A number of the greatest aguardiente rums embrace: Aguardiente Néctar Premium, Aguardiente Actual 1493, and Puro Colombia Aguardiente Sugarless.

Rhum Agricole: When it comes to Rhum Agricole, what you’ll need to know is that it’s mainly made within the French territories of the Caribbean, and that it’s fermented and distilled from pure, recent sugarcane juice — no molasses base for any such rum.

With regard to its taste profile, Rhum Agricole usually retains more of the original sugarcane juice flavors, and is distilled to anyplace from 40-55% ABV. When it comes to growing older, Rhum Agricole is usually only aged for 3 to six months inside a picket cask, though, as Wikipedia notes, “Rhum Vieux,” or “old rum,” is aged for 3 years.

Aspect word: Rhum Agricole coming from Martinique — a French territory within the Caribbean — is labeled with an Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée or AOC, which principally signifies that a given Rhum Agricole is indeed authentic and was made in Martinique.

Montebello brand of Rhum Agricole — observe the readability of the rum. Picture: Filo gèn’

A few of the greatest Rhum Agricole rums embrace: Clément Cuvée Homere, La Favourite Rhum Agricole Vieux, Saint James Additional Previous, Trois Rivières Ans D’Age 12 Rhum Vieux Agricole, and Darboussier Rhum Vieux Agricole.

Cachaça: Cachaça (pronounced kah-SHA-sah) is a kind of rum that is produced solely in Brazil. Like Rhum Agricole, Cachaça is comprised of recent sugarcane juice, although it’s most frequently bottled with both only a bit getting old, or no growing older at all. Cachaça is usually greatest used in combined drinks, although there are artisanal Cachaças, which could be sipped on neat or on the rocks.

A number of the greatest Cachaça rums embrace: Novo Fogo Cachaça, Avuá Cachaça, Yaguara Cachaça, Leblon Cachaça, and Sagatiba Cachaça.

Seco (or Seco Herrerano): Seco is rather like Cachaça except it’s made solely in Panama. Seco is triple distilled and created from solely from sugarcane juice moderately than molasses.

A number of the greatest seco rums embrace: Abuelo Añejo 7 años, Cana Brava Rum, Panama Pacific Rum 23 Yr, Selvarey Rum Cacao, Grander Panama Rum eight Yr, Zafra 21 Yr Rum.

Single barrel: If you understand something about whiskey, you realize that single barrel signifies that a whiskey was taken from a single barrel after which bottled. It’s the same cope with rum. So should you see “single barrel” on a bottle of rum, meaning all the rum came from a single barrel, and wasn’t blended with some other rums.

A number of the greatest single barrel rums embrace: Cruzan Single Barrel, Angostura Single Barrel Rum, Smuggler’s Notch Single Barrel Rum, Don Q Signature Launch 2007 Single Barrel Rum, Mount Homosexual Black Barrel Rum.

A bottle of Cruzan Single Barrel rum. Picture: Flickr / Steve Bennett 

Black strap rum: Blackstrap rum is principally a really darkish rum, besides it’s made with “black strap” molasses — the darkest molasses byproduct from the sugarcane juice extraction course of. The taste profile of black strap rum is usually candy and smokey; sweet from the wealthy molasses and smokey from the fact that black strap rums are barrel aged in charred barrels.

A number of the greatest black strap rums embrace: Cruzan Black Strap, Blackwell Black Strap Rum, Coruba Black Strap Rum, and Appleton 12 Black Strap Rum.


Now that you’ve a cursory — but complete — information of what rum is, how rum is made, the history of rum, and the several types of rum, it’s time to get to the enjoyable stuff: How to drink rum. So to get the rum social gathering began, and to set up your rum cred as a house or professional bartender, listed here are some ways to drink rum “properly.”


It ought to come as no surprise to anybody that mixing rum into combined drinks is likely one of the greatest ways to take pleasure in all the flavors of the Caribbean sweet sauce (we made that up, roll with it), so that you’ll in all probability need a large repertoire of basic rum cocktails as well as the information of which mixers work greatest with a rum base.

So far as essential rum cocktails are involved, we’ll cowl numerous those in our recipe videos — there’s also 5 of probably the most well-known recipes in the In style Rum Drink Recipes section under. But just to recap anyway, listed here are the basic rum cocktails that you simply’ll undoubtedly need to have down, whilst a novice bartender: Daiquiri, Piña Colada, Darkish ‘N’ Stormy, El Floridita, Mojito, Hurricane, Mai Tai, Planter’s Punch, The Zombie, and The Long Island Iced Tea. Once more, we’ll cover all of these drinks in a method or another all through the course, however normally what you’ll want to know is that rum cocktails have a tendency towards the tropical end of the spectrum. So should you’re throwing a pool celebration or sippin’ cocktails on the seashore, rum drinks like these will fit the temper and setting perfectly.

Lovely little piña colada — a basic rum cocktail. Picture: Flickr / Randy Robertson 

In case you’re wanting to make your personal rum cocktails (and you actually should fiddle and make your personal creations ’cause it’s satisfying as heck), listed here are some great mixers that may work with most rums: pineapple juice, coconut water, scorching chocolate, membership soda, ginger beer, fruit punch and — yeah, you’ll be able to go there — ice cream. Basically, rum works properly with just about any citrusy, tropical fruit juice, so you possibly can experiment with numerous mixtures including these elements to your coronary heart’s content material. Sweet additives corresponding to grenadine, simple syrup, orgeat syrup, and cream of coconut are additionally all unbelievable for adding tasty flavors, and slices of fruit (pineapple, cherries, limes, and so forth.) are additionally nice for garnishes.

Oh, and in addition, don’t ever overlook about this timeless combination: Rum. And. Coke.


You might not understand it, but rum might be enjoyed on its own identical to a superb whiskey. Though the key word right here is certainly “good,” ’trigger when you’re going to sip on a rum, you actually need to make sure that it’s respectable quality rum.

Sadly, recognizing a great, high-quality rum is usually a bit troublesome, as there are so few hard-and-fast laws on the different sorts, but as with most every thing else in life, you get what you pay for. So when in search of a very good sippin’ rum, let worth be your guide. Although excessive dollar quantities gained’t necessarily all the time work in your favor, so be sure to do a little analysis online first, particularly in case you’re doling out $50 or even $100 for a very nice bottle. And when it comes to which class of rum you’ll want to go together with for straight sippin’, you possibly can in all probability find a good rum in just about every category; you’ll in all probability need to keep away from white rums and overproof rums although, as they’ll be comparatively harsh and flavorless. There are undoubtedly some great artisanal Cachaças and Rhum Agricole options that you simply’ll need to take a look at as nicely.

That is what your rum on the rocks ought to seem like. Image: Flickr / Metropolis Foodsters

When you’ve chosen your rum of selection, you’ll be able to kind of comply with the identical tips as those laid out for consuming whiskey by itself. Which means you’ll want to pour it in a glass at room temperature — grappa glasses work nice due to their potential to funnel and seize aromas — after which let your nose paved the way. Ensure you’re sniffing with warning, nevertheless, as rum can overwhelm your sense of odor with its robust ethanol vapors (you’re not sipping on a low ABV wine right here, OK?). Once you’ve taken a number of mild sniffs (actually though, take your time and sniff sluggish), it’s time to get some rum in your tongue.

Again, with tasting rum, principally deal with it as a whiskey. So just sip a bit, chew on it a bit, and then swallow. When you’ll probably get the harshest alcohol style in the course of the actual sip, you’ll be handled to a bouquet of flavors together with your first post-drink exhale. With a superb rum you possibly can anticipate to decide up on a ton of flavors — together with vanilla, oak, caramel, cloves, and toasted nuts — with lots of them coming from the barrel by which the rum was aged.

A grappa glass. Picture: Flickr / Ansgar Koreng 

Oh, and relating to ice and water: With larger ABV rums, say something over 40%, you’ll in all probability need to do some dilution with a splash of water or a fats ice cube. Don’t freak out hearing this by the best way. No professional is going to look down on you for making an attempt to get the maximum flavor experience out of your very costly bottle of rum.


One other nice choice for consuming rum is adding it to scorching drinks. Critically, most elementary scorching drink recipes you’ll be able to consider work perfectly with rum. Some choices for nice scorching rum drinks embrace: The Basic Scorching Buttered Rum, the Rum Scorching Toddy, rum scorching cocoa, scorching rum coffee, scorching apple cider rum, and scorching chai tea with rum.

Scorching Toddy. Picture: Tipsy Bartender 

There isn’t a lot additional elaboration that’s wanted here. Principally all you need to do is make any of these drinks following the non-alcoholic recipe, and then add as a lot rum to it as you’d like. Although we do have a number of scorching rum drink recipes with actual measurements for you to take a look at under with recipes six via ten.


When you actually love rum and need to eat it as well as drink it, there are tons and tons (and tons) of wonderful rum dessert recipes. We’re talking rum bread pudding, orange, pineapple and walnut fruitcake with rum, rum bundt cake, basic bananas foster, vanilla rum custard, and about one million other recipes. And in case your mouth is watering like Niagara Falls after reading that record, take a look at these three rum deal with recipes under so you can also make some of these dangerous boys at residence.






1 1/2 oz. (45ml) White Rum
three/4 oz. (22ml) Darkish Rum
half oz. (15ml) Orange Curacao
1/2 oz. (15ml) Lime Juice
half oz. (15ml) Orgeat Syrup
Pineapple Wedge

1. Shake all components in addition to the darkish rum together over ice.
2. Add ice to serving glass and strain mix over. Float darkish rum on prime.
3. Garnish with pineapple wedge, mint sprig and cherry.


2 oz. (60ml) Mild Rum
1 oz. (30ml) Recent Lime Juice
half oz. (15ml) Easy Syrup
Garnish: Lime Wheel

1. Fill coupe glass with ice and set aside to chill.
2. In an ice crammed shaking glass mix rum, lime juice and simple syrup. Shake nicely.
three. Discard ice from serving glass and pressure combine inside. Garnish with a lime wheel.


2 oz. (60ml) Rum
1 oz. (30ml) Cream of Coconut
2 oz. (60ml) Pineapple Juice
Garnish: Pineapple Slice, Cherry

1. In a blender with ice, combine rum, cream of coconut, and pineapple juice. Blend completely till clean.
2. Pour combine into a hurricane glass and garnish with a pineapple slice and a cherry.

1 1⁄2 oz. (45ml) White rum
three⁄4 ouncesSimple Syrup
four Lime Wedges
1 1⁄2 ouncesClub soda
6 Mint Leaves
Garnish: Mint Sprig, Lime Wedge

1. Drop lime wedges, mint leaves and easy syrup into base of glass. Muddle nicely.
2. Add ice and rum before topping with membership soda.
3. Garnish with a lime wedge and a mint sprig.

1 oz. (30ml) Mild Rum
1 oz. (30ml) Darkish Rum
1/2 oz. (15ml) Apricot Brandy
1/2 oz. (15ml) Overproof Rum
2 half oz. (75ml) Orange Juice
2 half oz. (75ml) Pineapple Juice
1 oz. (30ml) Lime Juice
half oz. (15ml) Grenadine Syrup
Garnish: Orange Slice/Mint Leaves/Cherry

1. In an ice crammed shaker combine all above elements besides the grenadine and overproof rum. Shake nicely to mix.
2. Strain combine over ice in serving glass earlier than adding grenadine and gently layering overproof rum on prime using the again of a bar spoon.
three. Garnish with orange, mint leaves and a cherry.


1 oz. (30ml) Coconut Rum
1 oz. (30ml) Peach Schnapps
1 Cup Scorching Chocolate
Garnish: Whipped Cream, Coconut Flakes

1. Add all elements to a espresso mug. Prime with whipped cream.
2. Sprinkle coconut flakes on prime.


1 1/2 oz. (45ml) Spiced Rum
6 oz. (180ml) Boiling Water
1/4 Cup Butter
1/four Cup Brown Sugar
1/4 Cup Powdered Sugar
Vanilla Ice Cream (Softened)
Sprinkle Cinnamon
Sprinkle Nutmeg
Garnish: Whipped Cream/Cinnamon Stick/Nutmeg

1. Cream butter and sugars earlier than adding cinnamon and nutmeg. Add ice cream and beat combination until clean.
2. Add two spoonfuls of mixture to base of mug and pour over rum. Add boiling water and stir nicely.
three. Prime with whipped cream, cinnamon stick and grated nutmeg.


1 half oz. (45ml) Coconut Rum
5 oz. (150ml) Entire Milk (Scorching)
White Scorching Chocolate Powder
Garnish: Whipped Cream/Toasted Coconut Flakes/Chocolate Shavings

1. Add scorching milk and scorching chocolate powder to serving glass and stir nicely to combine.
2. Pour over coconut rum and stir once extra.
three. Prime with whipped cream, toasted coconut flakes and chocolate shavings.


1/2 oz. (15ml) Irish Cream
half oz. (15ml) Goldschläger
Prime with 151 Proof Rum

1. Pour Irish cream into the base of a shot glass before layering on Goldschläger.
2. Prime with a layer of 151 proof rum and ignite to serve.


1 ½ oz. (45ml) Tequila
three oz. (90ml) Spiced Scorching Chocolate*
1 oz. (30ml) Buttermilk
3 oz. (90ml) Heavy Cream
1 oz. (30ml) Spiced Dark Rum
2 dashes Aztec Bitters
Garnish: Cinnamon

1. Mix tequila, chocolate bitters, and spiced scorching chocolate* in a mixing glass and roll between two glasses to mix.
2. Mix heavy cream, buttermilk, and spiced darkish rum in a shaker and shake properly.
3. Pressure the combination into your serving glass and punctiliously prime with the spiced heavy cream mix.
4. Sprinkle floor cinnamon for garnish.


When it comes to storing your rum, you’ll be able to loosen up and overlook about all of your troubles, ’trigger you actually don’t want to do something special. As with most different arduous liquors, all you want to do to retailer rum properly is hold it in a reasonably cool, dry place, out of direct daylight. When you’ve got a pantry, that might be splendid.

In case your bottle of rum is opened, don’t stress, simply ensure to reseal it with a cap after which pop it in your cool, dry containment area (containment area doesn’t sound correct, but let’s roll with it). As long as your bottle is properly sealed and saved appropriately, it should final (kind of) indefinitely. Although even stored in a cool, darkish place, a number of the rum is going to evaporate out of the bottle.

Then, once you’re ready to serve your rum, it’s your decision to pop it in the refrigerator first, as a result of most individuals would like their rum chilled fairly than served at room temperature, especially if it’s getting into a fruity tropical cocktail.


Alright individuals, now you understand nearly all the things you need to about rum! So what does the longer term hold for this scrumptious, (often) Caribbean spirit? A number of progress! Significantly, the worldwide rum business is growing quicker than wild sugarcane grass in a perfect tropical climate.

According to The Morning Advertiser, “rum will overtake gin as the next big spirit.” The Spirits Business describes a “rum renaissance” through which there’s “certainly upward momentum [for the rum market].” And (as talked about earlier) The Drinks Business famous in 2017 “rum is poised to break [the] £1 billion sales barrier [in the UK].” So yeah, should you’re wanting to make an enormous chunk of change, it might be time to spend money on rum.

Nevertheless it’s not all kinds of rum which are getting that sort of progress love — it’s primarily the premium and super-premium rums. As Mauricio Vergara, CMO of Bacardi North America, famous within the aforementioned Spirits Enterprise article, “The biggest trend in rum is that it’s premiumising. Increasingly we are seeing growth in premium and super-premium rums, and I think it’s a trend that is going to keep accelerating.” This sentiment is echoed just about anyplace you look, with Market Watch, for instance, noting that “The rum industry is headed toward the premium tiers, defined as being above $20 per 750-ml,” and that “Amid all the upscaling in Bourbon and Scotch, rum makers are determined to get their share of space at the high end, and are rolling out aged rum offerings to draw in those same consumers.”

Angostura premium rum. Picture: Flickr / IZATRINI.com

So yeah, in the event you’re fascinated with the way forward for rum, assume progress, however primarily within the premium sector — which suggests you must anticipate to see much more fancy, high-end rums popping up in bars in individuals’s houses. It might even be a good idea to seize a bottle of one of the premium rum brands famous within the Kinds of Rum section and have that dangerous boy as a part of your own home collection.

As far as new know-how is worried, nevertheless, it looks like the business is content with the best way rum is at present made. There isn’t much fashionable speak on the market of adjusting the barrel-aging or harvesting process, though it appears affordable to anticipate efficiency to go up as time goes on.

(perform(d, s, id)
var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0];
if (d.getElementById (id)) returns;
js = d.pendingElement (t); js.id = id;
js.src = 'https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js#xfbml=1&version=v2.12&appId=248393762371221&autoLogAppEvents=1';
fjs.parentNode.insertBefore (js, fjs);
(dokumentti, 'käsikirjoitus', 'facebook-jssdk'));